Insulation buying guide

We explain your home insulation options.

Man installing insulation.

We look at what you need to consider when buying insulation for your home.

Before you begin

Before spending money on insulation, sort out draughts.

Seal around doors and windows, block off unused chimneys and remove downlights that are not rated “close abutted” (downlights with air gaps around them).

Remember you still need to air or ventilate your home to prevent damp accumulating and to maintain air quality. Even on the coldest nights, you need to introduce some fresh air.

Consider getting independent advice.

If you are unsure about how best to insulate your home, consider booking a free visit from an Eco Design Advisor.

You will receive an independent assessment of your home. They’ll also recommend the most cost-effective ways to improve your house's energy efficiency and reduce power bills.

Building Code requirements

The minimum requirements for energy efficiency in house design and construction are spelled out in the Building Code's energy effectiveness clause H1. The standard AS/NZS4859.1 sets the testing and labelling requirements for insulation materials used in the home and whether they comply with the requirements of H1.

R value ratings

Heat travels from warm to colder areas. The resistance of a material or building structure to transferring or conducting heat is expressed as an 'R value'. Insulating materials with higher R values reduce the rate of heat loss (or gain in summer) from a building.

The R value depends on the type of material, its density and thickness.

The required R values for insulation varies depending upon where it is to be placed in a house, the location in New Zealand and the house construction type.

The tables below show the minimum R values for wall, roof, floor and glazing required in different parts of the country for non-solid (timber-framed) construction houses.

Note: R values in New Zealand are in metric units (m² °C /W). R values in the United States are in imperial units, and look much bigger. Divide US values by 5.68 to convert them to metric.

Beyond the minimum

If you're building a new home, we recommend insulating beyond the code's minimum requirements. For a little extra cost, you can get a much higher level of comfort and health, and save on energy bills. In particular consider walls, roof, or underfloor areas that will be inaccessible once the house is complete. You won't get another chance.

Home insulation materials

Expanded polystyrene

Expanded polystyrene comes in rigid foam sheets. It is used for exterior cladding systems (monolithic cladding), and for insulating under concrete floors. It can also be used to insulate floors, walls and ceilings.

If there is a reasonably high working space under your house, it's relatively easy and safe to install polystyrene sheets between the floor joists.

Expanded polystyrene must be manufactured specifically for insulating as it requires compressable edges to make a tight fit against joists.

Glass fibre

Glass fibre (glass wool) is one of the most common insulation materials. It contains recycled glass and comes in a roll ready to run out in a roof space, or cut into segments for fitting between the framing timbers in your walls or ceiling. Various thicknesses are available for use in walls, ceilings and under the floor.

Glass fibre came under the spotlight some years ago after it was classified as a possible cause of lung cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organisation. The agency has removed this classification and now considers glass fibre not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans.

However, it can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose and throat during installation. Always wear gloves, dustmask, goggles and overalls when handling glass fibre insulation.

Professional installation may not cost a lot. Glass fibre bought from retail outlets can be a lot more expensive than if you hire an installer and take advantage of their trade rates.

Glass fibre cuts easily with a craft knife and can also be pulled apart. When installing do not compress and make sure joins are butted together firmly to avoid reducing the R value.

Loose fill insulation

Loose fill insulation is most commonly machine-blown into ceiling spaces. Macerated paper (cellulose fibre), glass fibre and mineral wool (rock wool) are the most common. New or recycled wool is also used.

Loose insulation is installed by experts using specialist equipment. It is easier and quicker to install than blanket types, and is a good way of getting insulation right into every nook and cranny in a difficult ceiling space. But some types can be dusty and messy, so it's really not suitable if you use the ceiling space for storage.

Macerated paper, made from recycled newsprint, is the cheapest insulation available. A fire retardant is added during manufacture to prevent ignition. Although it is low-cost, macerated paper has earned a poor reputation in the past. Manufacturers tell us that problems have been overcome - but it is dusty, may retain moisture from roof leaks, and may settle or blow around over time. Rats like paper-based insulation! It may not be available in parts of the country.

Mineral wool is likely to be more expensive than macerated paper but will not blow around so easily, isn't dusty and won't burn. It will settle over time.

Waste glass fibre used as a loose insulation won't burn but can be dusty, settle and move about.

Wool used as loose insulation is made from low-grade natural wool or waste clothing. It can also be dusty, and will burn in an established fire. If your roof leaks, wool and paper insulation won't dry as well as mineral fibre and may encourage mould.

When getting quotes, you need to compare the weight and thickness of the fill. How many kilograms per square metre (this is the density) are needed to get the right R value? Ask how many bags of insulation are needed and check they are all used.

The Fire Service has complained about macerated paper in the past, saying it can smoulder and fall onto a firefighter trying to gain access through the ceiling to a burning roof space. The same could apply to wool used as a loose fill.

Polyester and wool

Polyester and wool come in a roll ready to run out in a roof space, or cut into segments for fitting between the framing timbers in your walls or ceiling.

Polyester, wool and blends of these are relatively recent additions. They are more expensive than glass fibre, but more pleasant to handle and won't cause skin irritation. But they are not as easy to cut.

Reflective foil

Foil has been used for many years for underfloor insulation. A ban on the installation of foil insulation into residential buildings, and the repair of existing foil insulation, came into force on 1 July 2016.

Since 2005, five people have died after being electrocuted when foil insulation they were installing came into contact with electrical wiring.

Spray foam insulation

Worker spraying expandable foam insulation between wall studs

As the name suggests, spray foam insulation is applied using a spray gun. Once the foam makes contact with the surface, it expands and hardens. If applied correctly, there’s much less airflow around the insulation when compared to other products. The thermal performance is affected by both the coverage and thickness of the application.

Installing spray foam is a specialist job, so you can’t do it yourself. However, you can still check that the foam is installed to the correct thickness and that there aren’t any gaps around the edges.

For more information on insulation material characteristics, see Beacon Pathway's report "Thermal Insulation in NZ homes" (pp. 16-18)

Installing insulation yourself

  • The first step is to check your current insulation: is there any? What state is it in?

  • There are several types of insulation you can easily install yourself like blankets, batts and rigid polystyrene sheeting. Others need professional installers – such as spray foam and loose fill insulation.

  • Check the R values for your climate zone, so you don’t buy under-specced insulation.

  • Make sure there aren’t any leaks in the roof and pipes, so your new insulation won’t get wet. Damp insulation is less effective.

  • Have an electrician check you can safely cover electrical wiring that can't be placed outside the insulation.

  • If you have recessed downlights that are not closed abutted (CA) rated, replace them to eliminate the air gaps. Some CA-rated recessed light fittings allow insulation to touch them. If you're not replacing the downlights, check to see how big a gap in the insulation is needed around each light fitting to prevent over-heating.

  • Choose a product that is independently accredited and complies with the standard AS/NZS 4859.1: 2002. Compliance with this standard is mandatory under the Building Code. A compliance statement must be on the label of the insulation.

  • Wear a dustmask, goggles, gloves, long-sleeved shirt and closed footwear when installing fibre insulation products.

The quality of installation is of paramount importance. Even small gaps will undermine the performance of the insulation. You can download a free comprehensive guide on installing insulation from

Our advice

  • Shop around. Prices vary widely and specials are often available, especially at the end of winter.
  • Once you know where you want to install installation, decide on your budget and get some quotes. The best thing you can do is get the highest R-value you can afford, as this provides the most amount of insulation to your house.
  • If you hire an installer, check they are experienced. Ask for references.
  • If you want to install blanket-type insulation yourself but don't like glass fibre, go for wool or polyester. They are pleasanter to handle and less prone to damage but are more expensive.
  • Mineral wool is our pick of the loose fill insulation products. It has reliable R values, but it isn't cheap.
  • Bulk-type insulation can be fitted under existing floors as a DIY project – if you have sufficient head room to work comfortably.

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Member comments

Get access to comment

22 Apr 2021
E verses Eco

I discovered that many new builds are using polystyrene as insulation, especially under concrete flooring. O.K when in airtight situations, but who will pick up the tab decades ahead when homes are being altered or demolished and it is degrading?

Walter M.
19 Apr 2021
Carbon footprint considerations?

I'm disappointed that there isn't any comparison of the carbon footprint of the various insulations aka embodied carbon. Wool and macerated paper (referred to as cellulose some places overseas) would get a boost with considered and foams would fair badly. Generally I would like to see Consumer start to include carbon footprint in its rankings.

Antonia A.
19 Apr 2021
Sound advice

I would really like to know how these insulation’s stack up in sound conductivity vs heat conductivity. Specifically between floors...

Derek B.
18 Apr 2021
Insulating existing weatherboard walls

There seems to be much controversy about filling existing walls with foam etc.
What’s the truth?

Joanna S.
18 Apr 2021
Effect of increasing the R value on insulation

I would be interested to know the effect of increasing levels of insulation. Does doubling the R value halve the heat loss?
Also, how much does underfloor insulation reduce heat loss compared to ceiling insulation?
Do or should installers removing old foil insulation turn off the power to the house while they are under the house?

Andreas S.
18 Apr 2021
Buying guide?

Maybe it's just me, but I was expecting to find a "buying guide" and not just a copy of one can find in the internet? So what brands/products are out there and how do they perform, especially cost wise, this would be something I'm interested in.

Chris S.
18 Apr 2021
New builds and major refurbs beware the invisible thermal T-Rex in the equation:

Windows! Compared to walls, windows are a thermal black hole that can suck heat out of a room at a prodigious rate.

Do you need all those windows? Do they really need to be so large? South and SW facing windows provide zero thermal gain at any time and are thus permanent losers energy wise. In a S. facing bathroom with obscure glass they're a complete waste of time & money, especially with the advent of LED lighting systems.

Those massive picture windows looking over not much really may sound like the bees knees, but wait till the cold draughts and heating bills roll in, you'll wish you hadn't. I did.


17 Apr 2021
Insulation installation

The average householder would not know if their insulation was installed correctly but it would pay to at least get into the ceiling to check it yourself if you can. When my sister-in-law had her house renovated she paid to have extra insulation installed in the ceiling. She went up there afterwards to discover that large areas had not been filled correctly with big gaps and pieces missing. They had done a totally unprofessional job that was more or less a waste of time. It makes you wonder who you can trust these days.

Lloyd B.
17 Apr 2021
Better insulation, and higher standards coming soon

Polyisocyanurate (PIR) insulation such as Kingspan is even better, but remember MBIE has just released a consultation document on the higher standards they intend to introduce in November

Alison H.
17 Apr 2021
Subsidised insulation programme

I expected your article to draw attention to EECA(Energy Efficience & Conservation Authority) and their Warmer Kiwi Homes grants. Some members may qualify for these. Perhaps you are relying on the Eco Design Advisor to inform people of all their options around this. But not everyone will bring in such an advisor.

Richard W.
17 Apr 2021
Polyester Fill not new its mainstream

Can you please change your article to represent the current situation on main installation fibre's used in NZ. Polyester installation is a main stream product that deserves it own title and wording. your article is actually not up to date with current practices in NZ without this. comments please?